––«»o((« bi-smi lhi r-rahmâni r-rahîm »))o«»––



Islam und Homosexualität – eine differenzierte Betrachtung

Islam and homosexuality –
a balanced view

Andreas Ismail Mohr
Berlin, Germany

nîst bar lauh-i dilam
juz alif-i qâmat-i dûst

There is nothing on the tablet of my heart
But the alif of the stature of the friend

(Hâfiz, Dîwân, p. 198.)

What does Islam say about homosexuality? There are many who think they know that there can only be one answer. If you ask a traditional Muslim scholar he (or she) will most probably tell you that Islam condemns homosexuality, that is sex among males or among females, and considers it both a sin and a crime. The reason for this, the scholar will probably say, is that the Qur'an – the Koran – declares homosexuality a crime, something that is forbidden and will be punished by God, and that this becomes clear from the story of Lot (Lut, in Arabic), which is retold in the Qur’an again and again.

Not only "Islamist" groups within the Muslim World or fundamentalist sects within the Muslim community somewhere else in the world, but even quite moderate groups hold this view. Just in order to quote an example from my own country (Germany): there is a kind of Islamic handbook that discusses different aspects of Islam and of Muslim life in the West, published by the Deutsche Muslim-Liga in Hamburg. In this book you read: "the conduct of a homosexual goes against all moral values our religion stands for […]; adultery is a grave sin, but homosexuality, i.e. practising it, is even more grave. GOD condemned and punished the People of Lot, who were the first to practise homosexuality…" (Abdullah Leonhard Borek, ed., Islam im Alltag: Eine Handreichung für deutschsprachige Muslime, [n. pl.]: Al Kitab Verlag, 1999, p. 182).

The last point quoted refers to the Qu'ran, or at least what it is thought to contain. – But what does this sacred scripture, which is, in Muslim faith, a revelation of God to the Prophet Muhammad, really say? How was it in history? What do today’s Muslims have to say on the topic and – are there gay and lesbian Muslims?

The essay which is to follow here will cover the following topics:

The story of Lot in the Qur'an

What does this have to do with being gay or lesbian?

Doubts: a Qur'anic legal prescription directed against homosexuality? – A comment on Surat an-Nisa’ 4, verses 15-16

The sayings attributed to the Prophet Muhammad: homosexuality in hadith

Are the sayings attributed to Muhammad authentic?

Stoning and burning: on some aspects of classical Islamic criminal law

How was it really in history?

"Youths Handsome As Pearls" in Paradise

Homoeroticism in the Sufi world

The 'depths' of popular faith: "eating pork makes you homosexual"

Islam according to Saudi Arabia

Love and partnership – considering Surat ar-Rum 30, verses 21-22

Islam and Homosexuality – or: Can Muslims be Gay or Lesbian? – or: Can Lesbians and Gays be Muslims?

A theological re-interpretation of love and partnership in the Qurʾān, Sūra 30: 20-21 [21-22]

There is a verse (an āya – literally “a sign”) in the Qur’ān that is often quoted in connection to marriage. I myself wrote it once in a calligraphic style in Arabic for an invitation card of a friend when he married. Yes, it is about marriage, but – not only. Or… is it at all about married life, about a man and a woman? It is certainly about love and companionship, maybe the most important Qurʾānic verse on the topic – so let’s read the verse with this question in mind:

“And of His signs is that He created for you, of yourselves, mates, that you might repose in them, and He has set between you love and mercy.
Surely in that are signs for a people who consider.
And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and the variety of your tongues and hues.
Surely in that are signs for all living beings.”

(Qurʾān, Sūra 30 ar-Rūm, verses 20-21 [kūfic: 21-22].)

Note that the end of the last verse (translated here according to the reading of Warsh and Qālūn: lil-ʿālamīn: “for all living beings”, lit. “for all the worlds”) – according to the more common reading of Ḥafṣ (lil-ʿālimīn) would be translated: “for those who have knowledge.”

So we should really consider the Signs of God – with knowledge – and we will find that in God’s creation there is love, companionship, even life-long, between partners, mates who are not heterosexually married and who can not beget offspring with each other. Nature including mankind knows of sincere love detached from the obligation (or pressure) to multiply, or, let’s say, from the nice side-effect of producing children. It is true, that the Qurʾānic verse mentioned can be understood as referring to marriage, to love between a man and a women – and it usually is, but it does not necessarily have to since it does not mention “marriage” nor a clear-cut “wife” or “husband”. The word used for “mates” in this verse (azwāj, sometimes translated as “spouses” – but in German Qurʾān translations always fem. pl. “Gattinnen” meaning “wives”!) can have both genders, masculine and feminine; its singular form zawj (zaudj – which is derived, via Aramaic zaugā, zōgā, from the Greek word zeugos) literally means “a pair” or, more often, “a part of a pair” (such as one single shoe from a pair of shoes) – that is: a partner. And maybe you have noticed it: not even children, sons, daughters, offspring are mentioned here – inspite of the great importance of this in Arabian culture. – From this I conclude, then, that sincere, dedicated homosexual relationships (call them “marriages” or leave it) could be and should be considered among those Signs of God, i.e. as an integral, wise part of His works.

I have quoted not only one verse, but included the following one mentioning the variety of languages and colours – perhaps: colours of skin, hair and eyes in people. This points to diversity and mentions it as something that is good and according tho the Creator’s will. If “tongues and hues” may be diverse – then why not the forms of finding “repose” in one’s mate and of experiencing “love and mercy”, just to quote the first part of the verse again?

I think there is hope. Islam’s perception of homosexuallity has been quite diverse in the past. There are, on the one hand, homoerotic allusions to the ephebes of paradise in the Qurʾān just as much of traditional Muslim love poetry – written by males – was directed towards young men and adolescent boys, hence homoerotic in a male sense. On the other hand, sex between men (and also between women) has been considered to be utterly sinful, a punishable crime even, and termed “the act of Lot’s people”, referring to the Qurʾānic story of Lot (and its Biblical background), although the Qurʾan is not very explicit on any sexual crime of Sodom and Gomorrah (see, e.g., Sūra 7 al-Aʿraf, verses 80-84). The most important thing about this story, however, is that it is about disbelief, rejecting a messenger of God (= Lot!), it is about violation and abuse – but, whatever people may see in it, it is not about love and partnership. This, rather, is the topic of the verses 20-21 from Sūra 30, ar-Rūm, quoted above.

Faith and Islam – a theological reconsideration

What I want is to point out to Muslims that there can be a new way, a new spur on the old, trodden path, that it is possible that there will be a for some of them – for many of of us – a new, individual islam, a new "submission", which will enable homosexual believing (mu’min, muslim) people to accept themselves as gay and lesbian Muslims.

Andreas Ismail Mohr, Köln (Cologne, Germany) 2010

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* The Arabic definite article al- (which also occurs in the forms adh-, as-, ash-, at-, az- etc.) is ignored in the alphabetical order of this bibliography. *

‘Abdalbâqî, Muhammad Fu’âd: al-Mu‘jam al-mufahras li-alfâdh al-Qur’ân al-karîm. Reprinted Istanbul, 1982. – [word concordance for the Arabic text of the Qur’ân.]

(Abû Dâwûd, Sunan.) Sünen-i Ebî Dâvud ve Tercemesi. ed. İbrahim Koçaşlı. 5 volumes. Istanbul, 1983. – [Arabic-Turkish edition of the famous hadîth collection with Turkish translation and explanations by İbrahim Koçaşlı. – For an English translation of Sunan Abî Dâwûd see: Hasan. – This collection is one of the “Six Books”, which take the first place among the Sunnî hadîth works. The others are the collections by al-Bukhârî (q.v. [see below]), Muslim (q.v.), at-Tirmidhî (q.v.), further those of an-Nasâ’î and Ibn Mâjah. – on the “Four Books” of Shii hadîth see: Kulainî.]

Adang, Camilla: “Ibn Hazm on Homosexuality. A Case-Study of Zâhirî Legal Methodology.” In: Al-Qantara. Revista de estudios àrabes (Madrid), 24 (2003), S. 5-31. – [see also: Ibn Hazm, al-Muhallâ.]

Adil, Amina: Gaben des Lichts. Die wundersamen Geschichten der Gesandten Gottes. Kandern, 1999. – [Stories of the Prophets; contains a popular version of the story of Lot.]

Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-Musnad. 6 volumes (with Mukhtasar Kanz al-‘ummâl on the margin). Cairo, [vol. VI =] 1313 hijrî (= 1895/96). Online text of the Musnad, vocalized, on http://hadith.al-islam.com/Loader.aspx?pageid=194&BookID=30&TOCID=1. [Important classical collection of hadîth, not belonging to the “Six Books”.]

(Ahmadiyya.) Der Heilige Qur-ân. Arabisch und Deutsch. Herausgegeben unter Leitung von Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, Imam und Oberhaupt der Ahmadiyya-Bewegung des Islam. Ahmadiyya-Muslim-Bewegung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. (n. pl. [= Frankfurt a.M.]), 1985. – [The first edition of this Arabic-German Qur-ân by the Qâdiyân-Rabwah branch of Ahmadiyya (so-called “Qadianis”), formerly known as Ahmadiyya Mission, appeared in 1954 (Zürich, Switzerland). – On the bilingual Koran (1939) of the other branch of Ahmadiyya (Lahori) see: Sadr-ud-Din.]

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf: The Glorious Qur’ân. Translation and Commentary. Leicester 1978. – [Arabic-English.]

Amirpur, Katajun / Ammann, Ludwig (eds.): Der Islam am Wendepunkt. Liberale und konservative Reformer einer Weltreligion, Freiburg: Herder, 2006. – [19 Autoren stellen 19 zeitgenössische muslimische Denker vor, die als Reformer betrachtet werden können und teils liberale, teils konservative Standpunkte vertreten. – Siehe auch: Qaradâwî.]

amnesty international Jahresbericht 2001; amnesty international Jahresbericht 2003 – [relevant annual reports by amnesty international]

amnesty international – siehe auch: Dinkelberg.

al-Andalusî – siehe: Ibn Hazm.

Asad, Muhammad: The Message of the Qur’ân. (reprinted) Lahore n.d. – [Arabic Qur’ân text next to Asad’s English translation and commentary. – Muhammad Asad, originally Leopold Weiß [Weiss], born in Lemberg (then Austria; now Lwow/L’viv in Ukraine), was a well-known Muslim thinker; he died in 1992.]

Atabay, Cyrus – siehe: Hâfiz.

Baldauf, Ingeborg: Die Knabenliebe in Mittelasien. Bačabozlik. Berlin 1988. – [A study of the “boy-play” (bacha-bâz-lik) among Uzbeks of Afghanistan.]

Bible (Old Testament / Hebrew Bible) – containing: Genesis = First Book of Moses [B:rêshîth]; Leviticus = Third Book of Moses [Wayyiqrâ]; Books of Samuel [Sh:mû’êl]. – For a synopsis of common traditions of the Bible and the Qur’ân see: Thyen.

Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, Gisela: Tabu Homosexualität. Die Geschichte eines Vorurteils. Frankfurt a.M. 1978. – [Standardwerk.]

Bochow, Michael: Das kürzere Ende des Regenbogens. HIV-Infektionsrisiken und soziale Ungleichheit bei schwulen Männern. Berlin, 2000. – [Über schwule Türken handelt Kapitel 6 – “Interviews mit homosexuellen Migranten”.]

Bochow, Michael: “Konflikte und Irritationen zwischen türkischer Herkunftsfamilie und deutscher Mehrheitskultur.” In: Lebenswelten von Migrantinnen und Migranten in Berlin. Dokumente lesbisch-schwuler Emanzipation Nr. 19. Hrsg. Senatsverwaltung für Schule, Jugend und Sport, Fachbereich für gleichgeschlechtliche Lebensweisen. Berlin, 2001. S. 28-37. – [Studie aufgrund von Interviews mit sechs schwulen türkischen Männern.]

Bochow, Michael: “Sex unter Männern oder schwuler Sex: Zur sozialen Konstruktion von Männlichkeit unter türkisch-, kurdisch- und arabischstämmigen Migranten in Deutschland.” In: Bochow / Marbach (Hrsg.): Homosexualität und Islam. 2003 (s.u.), S. 99-115.

Bochow, Michael / Marbach, Rainer (Hrsg.): Homosexualität und Islam. Koran – Islamische Länder – Situation in Deutschland. Edition Waldschlösschen, Band 4. Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2003. – [Hierin Beiträge u.a. von Bochow, Günay, Mahdjoubi, Mercan, Mohr.]

Borek, Abdullah Leonhard (ed.): Islam im Alltag. Eine Handreichung für deutschsprachige Muslime. [n.pl. (Cologne)]: Al Kitab Verlag, 1999. – [in German. Published on behalf of and in cooperation with the Deutsche Muslim-Liga e.V., Hamburg. – Page 182 on homosexuality, whence the quotation above.]

al-Bukhârî, Muhammad ibn Ismâ‘îl: Sahîh al-Bukhârî. Ed. by Muhammad Dhihnî [Mehmed Zihnî], with marginal glosses, mainly from al-Qastallânî. 8 parts. Istanbul: Dâr at-tibâ‘a al-‘âmira, [completed in] 1315 hijrî (1898). Reprinted in one volume, Istanbul n.d. [ca. 1990]. – Online text of the Sahîh: http://hadith.al-islam.com/Loader.aspx?pageid=194&BookID=24 – [= al-Jâmi‘ as-sahîh, important hadîth collection, one of the “Six Books” (on which see above: Abû Dâwûd).

Bürgel, Johann C. – siehe: Hâfiz.

Busse, Heribert: Article “Lot” in: Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ân, volume 3, (Leiden, 2003), p. 231-233.

Chebel, Malek: Die Welt der Liebe im Islam. Eine Enzyklopädie. Darmstadt 1997. – [A kind of “dictionary” (certainly not an enyclopedia) on love and eroticism that is, however, to be treated with utmost care!]

Cook, Michael: The Koran. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. [A recommendable introduction to the Qur’ân. Also available in German translation: Der Koran. Eine kurze Einführung. Stuttgart: Reclam, 2003.]

Concordance et indices de la tradition musulmane – see: Wensinck.

Concordance of the Qur’ân – see: ‘Abdalbâqî.

Crompton, Louis: “Male Love and Islamic Law in Arab Spain.” In: Islamic Homosexualities. Culture, History and Literature, ed. Murray (see below) / Roscoe (1997), p. 97-104.

Demircan, Ali Rıza: İslâm’a göre cinsel hayat. 2 volumes in one, Istanbul 1988. – [“Sexual life according to Islam”, a detailed presentation of the “orthodox” Islamic viewpoint.]

Denffer, Ahmad von (Hrsg.): Allahs Gesandter hat gesagt... Lützelbach: Haus des Islam, 1984. – [Sammlung von 870 Hadîthen.]

Denffer, Ahmad v[on]: Der Koran. Die heilige Schrift des Islam in deutscher Übertragung mit Erläuterungen nach den Kommentaren von Dschalalain, Tabari und anderen hervorragenden klassischen Koranauslegern. Islamabad und München 1996

Deutsche Muslim-Liga, Hamburg – see: Borek.

Deutsches Allgemeines Sonntagsblatt – see: Elyas.

adh-Dhahabî, Shamsaddîn Muhammad ibn Ahmad: Kitâb al-Kabâ’ir. Bairût n.d. – [on major sins (pl. kabâ’ir; sg. kabîra); there is a chapter on liwât (= the eleventh kabîra) on p. 55-61.] – New edition by Mahmûd ibn al-Jamîl, Cairo 2001. [liwât on p. 65-70.]

Dinkelberg, Wolfgang / Gundermann, Eva / Hanenkamp, Kerstin / Koltzenburg, Claudia: Das Schweigen brechen. Menschenrechtsverletzungen aufgrund sexueller Orientierung. amnesty international. Berlin: Querverlag, 1999.

al-Djazîrî, see: Jazîrî.

Doi, ‘Abdur Rah.mân I.: Sharî‘ah. The Islamic Law. London: Ta Ha Publishers, 1984. Reprint 1997.

Dover, Kenneth J.: Homosexualität in der griechischen Antike. München: Beck, 1983.

Duden, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung, 2000, [s.v. Sodomie], Duden, Das Fremdwörterbuch, 2001, [s.v. Sodomie]. [Note: The German standard spelling dictionary (orthography: Rechtschreibung) defines Sodomie (sodomy) as sex with animals, which is the meaning of the word in modern German. The Fremdwörter-Duden (dictionary of foreign words) mentions this meaning as well as homosexual intercourse.]

Duran, Khalid: “Homosexuality and Islam.” In: Swidler [see below] (1993), p. 181-198. – [Duran’s essay, although containing some interesting sociological remarks, is quite weak as it comes to Islam as a religion; the author seems to have a very deficient knowledge of the sources and “quotes” them without any references. – Khalid Duran = Duran Khalid = Durán Khálid = Detlev Khalid (= Devlet Khalid??).]

Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.): Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. 2 volumes. New York 1990. – [See especially the following articles: Abu Nuwas, Afghanistan, Africa North, Albania, Ghulamiyya, Egypt Ancient, Gilgamesh, Hafiz, India, Indonesia, Iran, Islam, Jesus, Judaism, Lesbian, Mamluks, Mesopotamia, Mujun, Mukhannath, New Testament, Old Testament, Rumi, Sa‘di, Siwa Oasis, Sodom and Gomorrah, Sotadic Zone, Sufism, Talmud, Tribade, Turkey, Zoroastrianism.] – Now completely online: http://www.williamapercy.com/wiki/index.php/Portal:EOH

Elyas, Nadeem: “Gegen die Natur. Die Muslime lehnen die Regierungspläne ab.” In: Deutsches Allgemeines Sonntagsblatt, 28th July 2000, p. 23. – [A statement (guest’s comment) of the then president of the Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland (ZMD), Nadeem Elyas, on same-sex marriage.]

Encyclopaedia Iranica. (Edited by Ehsan Yarshater). Volume 12 (New York, 2004), p. 440-454: Article “Homosexuality”. – p. 440-441: Prods Oktor Skjærvø: In Zorastrianism; p. 441-445: E. K. Rowson: In Islamic Law; p. 445-453: [editors:] In Persian Literature. These articles can now be found online: Encyclopædia Iranica http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/search/keywords:homosexuality

Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. 13 volumes (12 volumes + index volume containing the “Index of Subjects”, the “Glossary and Index of Technical Terms” and the “Index of Proper Names”). Leiden, 1960-2008. – This encyclopedia contains two lengthy articles on homosexuality: 1. “Liwât”, vol. IV, p. 776-779 [according to Mr Arno Schmitt, Berlin, the author of this article was Charles Pellat, who also wrote the article “Djins”, q.v.]; 2. „Sihâk”, vol. IX, p. 565-567, by G. H. A. Juynboll (q.v.). – Other artices of interest for us here are: “Djins” (sex, sexuality), “Lût” (Lot) [see: Heller], “Tuways” (on a well-known mukhannath/effeminate singer) and “Zinâ” (fornication, adultery [XI, 509f, by R. Peters]). – See also the articles on persons and topics mention in the essay above, e.g. (in the following spellings): “al-Bukhârî”, “Dja‘far as-Sâdik”, “Ghulâm”, “Hadîth”, “Hûr”, “Ibn Hazm”, “al-Kulaynî”, “Kur’ân” (Qur’an), “Mawdûdî”, “Muhammad”, “al-Tirmidhî”.

Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ân. (ed. by: Jane Dammen McAuliffe). 5 volumes. Leiden: Brill, 2001-2006. – Conatins articles “Homosexuality&rdquo by E. K. Rowson (see below); and “Lot” by Busse (see above); – see: Rowson (below); and “Lot” – see: Busse; see also the articles “Adultery and Fornication”, “Gender”, “Love and Affection”, “Sex and Sexuality”.

Encyclopedia of Homosexuality – see: Dynes.

Encyclopédie de l’Islam. Nouvelle édition. [= French version of Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition, see above.]

Eron, Lewis John: “Homosexuality and Judaism.” In: Swidler [q.v., below] (1993), p. 103-134.

Ferchl, Dieter: Sahîh al-Buhârî. Nachrichten von Taten und Aussprüchen des Propheten Muhammad. Ausgewählt, aus dem Arabischen übersetzt. Stuttgart: Reclam 1991. – [A useful selection from the Sahîh al-Bukhârî in German translation; for the Arabic text see: Bukhârî.]

“Four Books” (of Shiite hadîth) – see: Kulainî. – [On the “Six Books” of Sunnî hadîth see: Abû Dâwûd.]

Genesis (Book of) – see: Bible, and Soggin.

Ghadban, Ralph. “Historie, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Einstellung zur Homosexualität und Pädophilie in islamischen Ländern”, and “.Gescheiterte Integration? Antihomosexuelle Einstellungen türkei- und arabischstämmiger MigrantInnen in Deutschland” in: LSVD Berlin-Brandenburg e.V. (ed.): Muslime unter dem Regenbogen. Homosexualität, Migration und Islam. Berlin: Querverlag, 2004. p. 39-63 and 217-252. – [Wrong transliterations of some Arabic terms, e.g. “Qufr” for kufr (p. 46), “suhâq” for sihâq (p. 55).]

[al-Ghazzâlî, Abû Hâmid] Al Ghasâli: Das Elixier der Glückseligkeit. Aus den persischen und arabischen Quellen in Auswahl übertragen von Hellmut Ritter. Second edition. Düsseldorf (Diederichs), 1981. – [Excerpts from Ihyâ’ ‘ulûm ad-dîn and Kîmiyâ-yi sa‘âdat by the famous author (died 1111 C.E.), containing a treatise on love. – See also: Ritter].

al-Ghazzâlî, Abû Hâmid: Ihyâ’ ‘ulûm ad-dîn. 4 volumes. Istanbul 1985. [with several other works (e.g. as-Suhrawardî’s ‘Awârif al-ma‘ârif) in the margins; reprinted from an older edition.]

Glünz, Michael: “Das männliche Liebespaar in der persischen und türkischen Diwanlyrik.” [The male couple in Persian and Turkish Divan lyric.] In: Theo Stemmler (ed.): Homoerotische Lyrik. Mannheim 1992, p. 119-128.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang: West-östlicher Divan. Herausgegeben von Karl Richter in Zusammenarbeit mit Katharina Mommsen und Peter Ludwig. München: Carl Hanser Verlag, 1998. (= Johann Wolfgang Goethe. Sämtliche Werke nach Epochen seines Schaffens. Münchner Ausgabe, Band 11.1.2.) – [Hierin S. 210, Goethes Anmerkung zum Schenken-Buch: “Weder die unmäßige Neigung zu dem halb verbotenen Weine, noch das Zartgefühl für die Schönheit eines heranwachsenden Knaben durfte im Divan vermißt werden; letzteres wollte jedoch unseren Sitten gemäß in aller Reinheit behandelt seyn.” – Siehe auch: Sa‘dî. – Die Quelle der Inspiration Goethes zu seinem Divan war der Dîwân des Hâfiz (s.d.).]

Goldziher, Ignaz: Muhammedanische Studien. Zweiter Teil. Ueber die Entwickelung des Hadîth. Halle 1890. reprinted Hildesheim 1971. – [The first major study of hadîth by an occidental islamicist (Islamwissenschaftler = scholar of Islamic studies).]

Gollner, Günther: Homosexualität. Ideologiekritik und Entmythologisierung einer Gesetzgebung. Berlin 1974.

Günay, Koray Ali: “Homosexualität in der Türkei und unter Türkeistämmigen in Deutschland. Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede.” In: Michael Bochow / Rainer Marbach (Hrsg.): Homosexualität und Islam. Koran – Islamische Länder – Situation in Deutschland. Edition Waldschlösschen, Band 4. Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2003. S. 116-139.

Gundermann, Eva / Kolb, Thomas: “Menschenrechtsverletzungen auf Grund sexueller Identität am Beispiel von Libanon und Ägypten.” In: LSVD Berlin-Brandenburg e.V. (Hrsg.): Muslime unter dem Regenbogen. Homosexualität, Migration und Islam. Berlin: Querverlag, 2004. S. 81-97.]

Hadîth, original collections (Arabic texts) – see: Abû Dâwûd; Ahmad; Bukhârî; Ibn Bâbûya; Kulainî; Mâlik; Muslim; Muttaqî; Qârî; Shaukânî; Suyûtî; Tibrîzî; Tirmidhî. * Complete translations (Turkish, English) – see: Hasan; Qârî; Robson; Siddîqî. * Selections (German) – see: Denffer; Ferchl; Hammer-Purgstall; Khoury 1988. * Translations of the most important hadîths on homosexuality – see: Mohr 2003. * Word concordance for the most important Sunni collections of hadîth – see: Wensinck. * Studies on hadîth – see: Goldziher; Motzki; Schacht (1967); Schoeler; Encyclopaedia of Islam (q.v.), article “Hadîth” (III, p. 23-29) and “Usûl al-Hadîth” (X, p. 934-935).

Hâfiz-i Shîrâzî, Shamsaddîn Muhammad: Dîwân. (no place) 1368 hijrî shamsî. – [edition of the Persian text of the famous diwan (collection of poems) of the most important Persian lyrical poet, Hâfiz (ca. 1320-1389 CE). – translation (selections): see the two following entries.]

(Hâfiz) Muhammad Schams ad-Din Hafis: Gedichte aus dem Diwan. Ausgewählt und hrsg. von Johann C. Bürgel. Stuttgart, 1988.

(Hâfiz) Hafis: Liebesgedichte. Übertragen von Cyrus Atabay. Frankfurt 1996.

Hammer-Purgstall, Freiherr [Joseph von] (1774-1865): “Geisterlehre der Moslimen”. In: Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-Historische Klasse. Dritter Band. Wien, 1852. p. 189-228. – [Translated excerpts from as-Suyûtî’s al-Jâmi’ as-saghîr, containing hadîths on jinn (spirits, demons).]

Handwörterbuch des Islam – siehe: Wensinck / Kramers.

Hasan, Ahmad: Sunan Abu Dawud. English translation by Ahmad Hasan. 3 Bände. Lahore, 1984. – [Arabic text see: Abû Dâwûd.]

Heller, Bernhard: Artikel “Lût” (Lot) in Handwörterbuch des Islam (see: Wensinck / Kramers). – [This article is a revised version of the article “Lût” from the old Enzyklopaedie des Islâm, vol. III (1936), p. 57-58. – Still a later revision of the same, by Georges Vajda (1908-1981), is contained in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition (q.v.); here the author is given as: “Heller(-Vajda)”.]

Henning, Max: Der Koran. Aus dem Arabischen übersetzt. Hrsg. Annemarie Schimmel. Stuttgart 1991. – [Die erste Auflage erschien 1901 in Leipzig. Die Neuausgabe enthält Fußnoten Hennings und Schimmels, teilweise vermischt.]

(Henning, Max:) Der Koran. Aus dem Arabischen. Übersetzung von Max Henning. Einleitung von Ernst Werner und Kurt Rudolph. Textdurchsicht, Anmerkungen, Register von Kurt Rudolph. Wiesbaden: VMA-Verlag, o.J. [ca. 1980].

Hergemöller, Bernd-Ulrich: Sodom und Gomorrha. Zur Alltagswirklichkeit und Verfolgung Homosexueller im Mittelalter. Überarbeitete und ergänzte Neuausgabe. Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2000.

Homosexualität und Islam – siehe: Bochow / Marbach.

Hübsch, Hadayatullah: Islam – 99 Fragen und Antworten zum Islam. Information ohne Indoktrination. Nienburg 1994. – [99 questions on Islam answered by the prominent German Ahmadi writer (1946-2011); the book contains two strange remarks about homosexuality on p. 92 and 142.]

HuK-Info Nr. 149/150. – siehe Vorbemerkung oben, Seitenanfang. – [HuK = Ökumenische Arbeitsgruppe Homosexuelle und Kirche e.V.]

HuK-Info Nr. 148. – s.o., Abschnitt 29.

Ibn Bâbûya (Ibn Bâbawaih) al-Qummî, Abû Ja‘far as-Sadûq Muhammad ibn ‘Alî: Man lâ yahduruhu al-faqîh. Ed. by as-Sayyid Hasan al-Mûsawî al-Kharsân. 4th edition, Najaf 1378 hidjrî (= 1958/59). – [Important Shii Imami hadîth collection by Ibn Bâbuya[h], also known as ash-Shaikh as-Sadûq; one of the “Four Books”, the most well-known among which is al-Kâfî – see: Kulainî.]

Ibn Hazm al Andalusi: Das Halsband der Taube. Von der Liebe und den Liebenden. Übertragen von Max Weisweiler. Frankfurt a.M. 1988. – [A slightly shortened German translation of Ibn Hazm’s famous treatise on love, Tauq al-hamâma – “The necklace of the dove”; Spain, ca. 1022 C.E.]

Ibn Hazm al-Andalusî: al-Muhallâ. Kairo 1352 hidjrî. – [Für unser Thema interessant ist besonders Band XI, S. 283-6, 373-93, 401f. – Über die Hadîth-Kritik Ibn Hazms siehe oben, Abschnitt 12. – Siehe auch: Adang. ]

(Ibn Kathîr) Abûl-Fidâ’ Ismâ‘îl ibn Kathîr: Mukhtasar Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr, by Muhammad ‘Alî as-Sâbûnî. 3 volumes. Bairût 1399 hijrî. – [An abridgment of the commentary on the Qur’ân by Ibn Kathîr.]

Ibn Sumâdih at-Tujîbî al-Andalusî: Mukhtasar Tafsîr at-Tabarî. (Mus’haf al-Qâdisiyya al-mufassar.) Ed. by Khâlid az-Za‘farânî. Alexandria 1984. – [[An abridgment of Abû Ja‘far Muhammad at-Tabarî’s commentary on the Qur’ân.]

Islamic Homosexualities – siehe: Murray / Roscoe.

Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan: Islam & Homosexuality. http://www.jamaat.org/qa/homo.html (6.3.2003) – (6th March 2003) – [The Jamâ‘at-i Islâmî is an Islamic fundamentalist revivalist movement and a political party in South Asia; it was founded by Maudûdî (q.v.) in 1941.]

Jamal, Amreen: “The Story of Lot and the Qur’ân's Perception of the Morality of Same-Sex Sexuality”. In: Journal of Homosexuality, 41.1 (2001), S. 1-88.

“al-Jazîrî, ‘Abdarrahmân” [et al.]: al-Fiqh ‘alâ al-madhâhib al-arba‘a [‘Jurisprudence according to the four legal schools’], volume 5, kitâb al-hudûd [‘book of punishments’], reprinted, Bairût n.d. – [Note that volume V is not by al-Jazîrî (1882-1941) under whose name the whole work was published; vol. V was completed in 1392 AH (1972, cf. V, p. 470), the author of the kitâb al-hudûd is, hence, anonymous.]

Juynboll, G. H. A.[1935-2010]: article “Sihâk” in: Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. Volume IX (1997), p. 565-567, (in der französische Ausgabe: Band IX [1998], S. 588-589). – (vol. IX [1998], p. 588-589, in the French edition). – [Article on sihâq (‘tribadism’, lesbian love), with a detailed bibliography.]

Karaman, Hayrettin: Erlaubtes und Verwehrtes. Translated from Turkish into German by H. Achmed Schmiede. Ankara, 1993. – [A book on halâl and harâm; p. 102 on “sexual abnormity”.]

Karsch-Haack, Ferdinand: Die Rolle der Homoerotik im Arabertum. Gesammelte Aufsätze 1921-1928. Herausgegeben von Sabine Schmidtke. Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2005.

Kaufmann, Arthur (Hrsg.): Die Peinliche Gerichtsordnung Kaiser Karls V. von 1532. Stuttgart 1991.

Khalifeh-Soltani, Iradj: Das Bild des idealen Herrschers in der iranischen Fürstenspiegelliteratur, dargestellt am Beispiel des Qâbûs-Nâmé. Tübingen 1971 (Diss.)

Khan, Badruddin: Sex, Longing & Not Belonging. A Gay Muslim‘s Quest for Love and Meaning. Oakland, CA: Floating Lotus, 1997.

Khoury, Adel Theodor: So sprach der Prophet. Worte aus der islamischen Überlieferung. Gütersloh 1988. – [A selection of hadîth in German.]

Khoury, Adel Theodor: Der Koran. Arabisch-Deutsch. Übersetzung und wissenschaftlicher Kommentar. 12 volumes. Gütersloh 1990-2001. [A German translation of the Qur’ân, next to the Arabic text, with an extensive commentary similar to a traditional tafsîr.]

Koran, see: Qur’ân.

al-Kulainî (al-Kulînî) ar-Râzî, Thiqat al-Islâm Abû Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Ya‘qûb ibn Is’hâq: al-Usûl min al-Kâfî; al-Furû‘ min al-Kâfî; ar-Rauda min al-Kâfî. Edited and partly commented upon by ‘Alî Akbar al-Ghaffârî, published by ash-Shaikh Muhammad al-Âchûndî, 8 volumes, Tehran, reprinted 1362-1367 hijrî shamsî (= 1983-1989). – [Complete typographic edition of the famous Shii Imami hadith collection, the correct title of which is al-Kâfî fî ‘ilm ad-dîn (“the sufficient one in the knowledge of religion”). This is one of the “Four Books”, i.e. the main collections of Imami Hadith, the others being Man lâ yahduruhu al-faqîh by Ibn Bâbûya [Bâbawaih] al-Qummî [see above: Ibn Bâbûya], and two works by at-Tûsî (“Shaikh at-tâ’ifa”): Tahdhîb al-ahkâm and al-Istibsâr fî-mâ ukhtulifa fîhi min al-akhbâr). – The first two volumes of the Kâfî, called al-usûl “the roots (foundations)” comprise theology and supplications; volumes 3-7, al-furû‘, “the branches”, are about ritual and law; volume 8, ar-Rauda “the Garden”, is a mixed appendix with 597 traditions arranged in no recognizable order. – For die Frage nach qaum Lût, liwât, sihâq, mukhannathûn some passages in kitâb an-nikâh (V, p. 523f, 540-552) and in kitâb al-hûdûd (VII, p. 181f, 198-204, 208) are relevant.]

Kunz, Daniel: “gai – bög – schwul – ibne – gay. Homosexualität in der interkulturellen Sexualpädagogik – Ein Plädoyer für die Menschenrechtserziehung”. In: Lebenswelten von Migrantinnen und Migranten in Berlin. Dokumente lesbisch-schwuler Emanzipation Nr. 19. Hrsg. Senatsverwaltung für Schule, Jugend und Sport, Fachbereich für gleichgeschlechtliche Lebensweisen. Berlin 2001. S. 61-65. – [Angesichts des Anspruchs: ziemlich unkundig was Religion betrifft!]

Leviticus (Book of) – see: Bible.

LSVD Berlin-Brandenburg e.V. (Hrsg.): Muslime unter dem Regenbogen. Homosexualität, Migration und Islam. Berlin: Querverlag, 2004. – [Sammelband mit Beiträgen sehr unterschiedlicher Qualität; u.a. von: Ghadban, Gundermann/Kolb, Mercan, Mohr (s.d.). – Der absolut unwissenschaftliche, ja sogar unsäglich dumme Beitrag einer gewissen "Git" oder "Giti Thadani" und ihrer Übersetzerin (S. 64ff) ist als peinlicher Fehlgriff zu betrachten; es ist nicht einsichtig, was dieses Pamphlet in diesem Band zu suchen hat, da es leider den Wert des Sammelbandes mindert.]

Mahdjoubi, Ali: “Homosexualität in islamischen Ländern am Beispiel Iran.” In: Michael Bochow / Rainer Marbach (Hrsg.): Homosexualität und Islam. Koran – Islamische Länder – Situation in Deutschland. Edition Waldschlösschen, Band 4. Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2003. S. S. 85-98.

Mâlik ibn Anas: al-Muwatta’. Ed. by Muhammad Fu’âd ‘Abdalbâqî. Cairo 1951. – [Important early legal work and hadîth collection (ca. 800 C.E.); with explanations by the editor. – For a commentary on the Muwatta’ see: Suyûtî, Tanwîr al-hawâlik.]

Maudûdî, S. Abul A‘lâ: The Meaning of the Quran. (Translated by Ch. Muhammad Akbar and ‘Abdul ‘Azîz Kamâl). 16 volumes. Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1967-1988. – [Complete English translation of Sayyid Abû-l-A‘lâ Maudûdî’s Tafhîmu-l-Qur’ân, a translation of and commentary on the Qur’ân in Urdu, written 1942-1972.]

Mercan, Abdurrahman: “Lebensstile und Selbstorganisation von muslimischen Homosexuellen in Deutschland”. In: Michael Bochow / Rainer Marbach (Hrsg.): Homosexualität und Islam. Koran – Islamische Länder – Situation in Deutschland. Edition Waldschlösschen, Band 4. Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2003 . S. 140-155.

Mercan, Abdurrahman: “Identität und Emanzipation bei türkischstämmigen Homosexuellen am Beispiel von TürkGay&Lesbian LSVD.” In: LSVD Berlin-Brandenburg e.V. (Hrsg.): Muslime unter dem Regenbogen. Homosexualität, Migration und Islam. Berlin: Querverlag, 2004, S. 152-167.

Mishkât al-masâbîh – see: Tibrîzî (Arabic text) and Robson (translation).

Mohr, Andreas Ismail: “Das Volk Lots und die Jünglinge des Paradieses. Zur Homosexualität in der Religion des Islam.” [‘Lot’s people and the youths of paradise: On homosexuality in the religion of Islam.’] In: Michael Bochow / Rainer Marbach (eds.): Homosexualität und Islam. Koran – Islamische Länder – Situation in Deutschland. Edition Waldschlösschen, volume 4. Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2003. p. 51-84. – Enthält erstmals eine deutsche Übersetzung der wichtigsten Hadîthe zum Thema. – [Contains the first German translation of the most important hadîths on the topic.] Eine stark umgearbeitete und ergänzte Fassung dieses Aufsatzes, jedoch ohne Fußnoten und Literaturverzeichnis, ist folgender Beitrag:

Mohr, Andreas Ismail: “Wie steht der Koran zur Homosexualität?” [‘What does the Qur’ân say about homosexuality?’] In: LSVD Berlin-Brandenburg e.V. (ed.): Muslime unter dem Regenbogen. Homosexualität, Migration und Islam. Berlin: Querverlag, 2004, p. 9-38. – [Discusses the relevant passages of the Qur’ân.]

Mohr, Andreas Ismail: “Islam und Homosexualität – eine differenzierte Betrachtung.” In: HuK-Info (Ökumenische Arbeitsgruppe Homosexuelle und Kirche [HuK] e.V.) no. 149/150, Juli-Dezember 2003, p. 49-52.

Montazerî, [Âyatullâh] ‘Alîhusain: Risâla-i tauzîhu-l-masâ’il. n.pl. 1362 hijrî shamsî (= 1983/84), and Qom 1372 hijrî shamsî (1993/94). – [The Persian risâla ‘amaliyya (‘practical treatise’) with the traditional title “Treatise on the clarification of legal questions” by the well-known Iranian scholar Âyatullâh Husain-‘Alî Muntazarî (Muntazirî, 1922-2009); mas’ala 3013-3017, 2438 on liwât.]

Moses, First Book and Third Book of – see: Bible.

Motzki, Harald. Motzki: Die Anfänge der islamischen Jurisprudenz. Ihre Entwicklung in Mekka bis zur Mitte des 2./8. Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1991. (Übersetzung: The Origins of Islamic Jurisprudence: Meccan Fiqh before the Classical Schools. Leiden: Brill, 2002.) – [Enthält eine gute Zusammenfassung der Diskussion über den Hadîth in der abendländischen Islamwissenschaft des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. – Siehe auch: Schoeler.]

al-Mu‘jam al-mufahras li-alfâdh al-hadîth an-nabawî – see: Wensinck.

al-Mu‘jam al-mufahras li-alfâdh al-Qur’ân al-karîm. – see: ‘Abdalbâqî

Murray, Stephen O. / Roscoe, Will. (Hrsg.): Islamic Homosexualities. Culture, History and Literature. New York 1997. – [Ein Sammelband mit zahlreichen Beiträgen über Homosexualität, Transvestismus usw.; siehe: Crompton, Murray, Wafer. – Die Qualität ist uneinheitlich, die wenigen den Islam als Religion betreffenden Teile (z.B. Wafer [s.d.]) sind mangelhaft. Der Index am Schluss des Bandes nährt Zweifel an der fachlichen Kompetenz der Herausgeber.]

Murray, Stephen O.: “Woman-Woman Love in Islamic Societies.” In: Murray/Roscoe: Islamic Homosexualities (1997), S. 97-104.

Muslim ibn al-Hajjâj al-Qushairî an-Naisâbûrî: al-Jâmi‘ as-sahîh. Ed. and commented upon by Muhammad Shukrî al-Anqarawî, Ahmad Rif‘at al-Qara-hisârî and Muhammad ‘Izzat az-Za‘farânbûliyawî. 8 parts, Istanbul 1329-1334 hijrî (1911-16). Reprinted in 4 volumes, Bairût: Dâr al-fikr, n.d. [ca. 1985]. – Online text of the Sahîh: http://hadith.al-islam.com/Loader.aspx?pageid=194&BookID=25 – [Famous hadîth collection, one of the “Six Books” (on which see above: Abû Dâwûd). – English translation see: Siddîqî.]

Muslime unter dem Regenbogen – siehe: LSVD Berlin-Brandenburg e.

al-Muttaqî al-Hindî, ‘Alî: Kanz al-‘ummâl fi sunan al-aqwâl wa-l-af‘âl. Ed. by Bakrî al-Hayyânî / Safwat as-Saqqâ, 16 volumes. Bairût 1979. – [A collection of ca. 46,000 hadîths.]

Naggar, Mona: “... wie das Reiben von Safran. Lesbische Liebe im Islam. Das Ringen um die Lust.” In: die tageszeitung, Do. 14.3.1996, S. 13.

Nahas, Omar: Islam en homoseksualiteit. Amsterdam: Bulaaq/Yoesuf 2001. [in Dutch]

an-Nuwairî, Shihâbaddîn Ahmad ibn ‘Abdalwahhâb: Nihâyat al-arab fî funûn al-adab, volume II, Cairo 1924. – [Here, p. 202-210 on liwât etc.; the source of Nuwairî’s material in this chapter is Ibn al-Jauzî’s Dhamm al-hawâ (‘Censure of passion’).]

Paret, Rudi: Mohammed und der Koran. Geschichte und Verkündigung des arabischen Propheten. 5th, revised edition, Stuttgart 1980. – [Introduction to Muhammad and the Qur’ân by a leading German orientalist (1901-1983). On the Qur’ânic narratives see p. 94-96.]

Paret, Rudi: Der Koran. Kommentar und Konkordanz. 2nd edition, Stuttgart 1981. – [A scholarly commentary addressing an orientalist readership. The concordance is in the form of countless cross-references between single Qur’ânic verses or parts of verses.]

Paret, Rudi: Der Koran. Übersetzung. 3rd edition, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1983. – [A German translation of the Qur’ân still regarded the most “scientific” in German; the modern, profane language and the inclusion of exegetical clarifications and alternative translations in brackets, and in brackets within brackets, makes the reading difficult.]

Pellat, Charles [1914-1992]: article “Djins” [sex, sexuality] in: Encyclopaedia of Islam (q.v.). Pellat is probably also the anonymous author of the article “Liwāt” in the Encyclopaedia of Islam (q.v.), vol. IV, p. 776-779.

Peters, R.: Article “Zinâ” [‘unlawful sexual intercourse’] in: Encyclopaedia of Islam (q.v.).

Pfeffer, Georg: “Andere Männerhäuser, andere Männer: zwei südasiatische Beispiele.” In: Männerbande, Männerbünde. Zur Rolle des Mannes im Kulturvergleich. Ed. by Gisela Völger and Karin von Welck. 2 volumes Köln: Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum, 1990. Vol. 2, p. 175-184. – [Especially p. 182 on homosexuality in Pashtun society.]

Qâbûsnâma = The Nasîhat-nâma known as Qâbûs-nâma of Kai Kâ’ûs b. Iskandar b. Qâbûs b. Washmgîr. Ed. with critical notes by Reuben Levy. London 1951. – [A work of the mirror for princes genre from medieval Iran, containing a chapter on love with girls and boys.]

al-Qaradâwî, Yûsuf: al-Halâl wa-l-harâm fî al-Islâm. 14th edition, Cairo 1980. [On “sexual perversion” mainly p. 75, 144-146.] – Translations: English: Yusuf al-Qaradawi: The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, Translated by Kamal El-Helbawy, M. Moinuddin Siddiqui, Syed Shukry, (reprinted) Delhi, n.d. – German: Jusuf al-Qaradawi: Erlaubtes und Verbotenes im Islam, übersetzt von Ahmad von Denffer, München: Bavaria, 1989 [here p. 80-89, 146-147, 168], (4th revised ed. 2003). – Turkish: Yusuf El-Karadâvî: Islâm’da helâl ve haram, Kuwait: IIFSO, 1980. – [For a portrait of al-Qaradâwî see Bettina Gräf: “Yûsuf al-Qaradâwî: Das Erlaubte und das Verbotene im Islam”, in: Katajun Amirpur [q.v.]/ Ludwig Ammann (eds.): Der Islam am Wendepunkt. Liberale und konservative Reformer einer Weltreligion, Freiburg: Herder, 2006, p. 109-117.]

(al-Qârî, ‘Alî) Aliyy-ül-Kârî: Kirk Kudsî Hadîs, [translated by] Hasan Hüsnü Erdem. Ankara: DITIB, 1982. – [A well-known collection of traditions containing Divine Sayings, hadîth qudsî; Arabic and Turkish.]

QUEER, August 2000 – siehe dazu oben im Abschnitt 25.

Qur’ân, translations and commentaries see: Ahmadiyya; Ali; Asad; Denffer; Henning; Ibn Kathîr; Ibn Sumâdih; Khoury; Maudûdî; Paret; Sadr-ud-Din; Zamakhsharî; Zirker. * Introductions to the Qur’ân – siehe: Cook; Zirker. * Bible-Qur’ân synopsis – see: Thyen. * On homosexuality in the Qur’ân – see: Mohr 2004. * On the story of Lot in the Qur’ân – see: Jamal. * Word concordance for the Arabic text of the Qur’ân – see: ‘Abdalbâqî.

[Pink Book I] – IGA Pink Book. 1985. – [Siehe darin besonders den Artikel über Iran.]

[Pink Book II] – Second ILGA Pink Book. A global view of lesbian and gay liberation and oppression. (Hrsg.:) The Pinkbook Editing Team. Utrecht, 1988. – [Siehe besonders S. 153-161: Jale Simsek [Schimschek]: Turkey – a country with a long homosexual history, und im country-by-country survey (S. 183ff): Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, u.a.]

[Pink Book III] – The third Pink Book. A global view of lesbian and gay liberation and oppression. Edited by Aart Hendriks, Rob Tielman, and Evert van der Veen. – [In Part 2, (S. 247-342): A country-by-country survey / World survey on the social and legal position of gays and lesbians, (von Afghanistan bis Zimbabwe); siehe besonders: Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, u.a.]

Priesmeier, Bernhard Omar: “Das AIDS-Problem aus islamischer Sicht.” In: Moslemische Revue, Heft 4, 9.(“65.”) Jhg., Okt.-Dez. 1989, S. 138-142.

Rahman, Tariq: “Boy Love in the Urdu Ghazal.” In: Paidika. The Journal of Paedophilia. Vol. 2, no. 1 (Summer 1989), p. 10-27.

Rassoul, Muhammad Ahmad: Handbuch der muslimischen Frau. Köln: Islamische Bibliothek 1996. – [writes wrongly “luwât” instead of correct liwât.]

Ritter, Hellmut: Das Meer der Seele. Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farîduddîn ‘Attâr. Leiden 1955. – [This important work about the Persian mystic (13th century C.E.) contains several chapters von love. Cf.: Ghazzâlî.]

Robson, James: article “Hadîth” in: Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition, volume III, p. 23-29.

Robson, James: Mishkat Al-Masabih. English Translation with Explanatory Notes. 2 volumes. Lahore 1981. – [Arabic text see: Tibrîzî.]

Rowson, Everett K.: “The effeminates of Early Medina” in: Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1991, p. 671-693. – [On the mukhannathûn (effeminate men) in early Islam.]

Rowson, Everett K.: Artikel “Homosexuality”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ân, volume 2, (Leiden, 2002), p. 444-445. Online here: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/homosexuality-ii

Rowson, Everett K.: “Homosexuality [Abschnitt] In Islamic Law”. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica. Band 12 (New York, 2004), S. 441-445.

Rowson, Everett K. – siehe auch: Wright / Rowson.

Rûmî, Maulana Dschelaladdin: Aus dem Diwan. Aus dem Persischen übertragen und eingeleitet von Annemarie Schimmel. Stuttgart 1981. – [Hieraus die beiden Vierzeiler, oben Abschnitt 21.]

Sâbiq, as-Sayyid: Fiqh as-sunna. 3 volumes. Bairût 1985. – [volume II, p. 427-436, 404f, 592 on liwât, sihâq etc.]

Sa‘dî, Muslih ad-Dîn: Der Rosengarten. Bremen 1982 – [German translation of the Gulistân. The chapter Dar ‘ishq-ô-jawânî, “On love and youth” has many stories with a homoerotic hue. – The “Rose Garden” is a masterpiece of Persian literature (13th century C.E.).]

Sadr-ud-Din, Maulana: Der Koran. Arabisch-Deutsch. Uebersetzung, Einleitung und Erklärung. Berlin: Verlag der Moslemischen Revue. “II Ausgabe Berlin 1964.” – [Photomechanical reprint of the 1939 Qur’ân edition with typographical Arabic text, German translation and commentary edited by Sadr-ud-Din who belonged to the Lahore branch of the Ahmadiyya (Anjuman-i Ishâ‘at-i Islâm, Lahore). – On the Qur’ân published by the other Qâdiyân-Rabwah branch see: Ahmadiyya.]

Sahîh al-Bukhârî – see: Bukhârî (Arabic text) and: Ferchl (partial German translation).

Sahîh Muslim – see: (Arabic text); for the English translation see: Siddîqî.

Samuel, Second Book of – see: Bible.

Schacht, Joseph: An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford 1964 (Nachdruck 1991).

Schacht, Joseph: The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. 4. Auflage. Oxford, 1967. Nachdruck 1979. – [Enthält wichtige Thesen über die Entstehung des Hadîth, die kontrovers diskutiert und neuerdings in Frage gestellt werden. – Siehe auch: Motzki; Schoeler.]

Schild, Marten: “The Irresistible Beauty Of Boys. Middle Eastern Attitudes About Boy-Love.” In: Paidika. The Journal of Paedophilia. Vol. 1, no. 3 (Winter 1988), S. 37-48.

Schimmel, Annemarie: “Eros – Heavenly and Not So Heavenly – in Sufi Literature and Life.” In: A. L. al-Sayyid-Marsot: Society and the Sexes in Medieval Islam. Malibu 1979, p. 119-141. –

Schimmel, Annemarie: Stern und Blume. Die Bilderwelt der persischen Poesie. Wiesbaden 1984. – [Interessant ist das Kapitel Türke und Hindu, S. 110-114.]

Schimmel, Annemarie: Mystische Dimensionen des Islam. Die Geschichte des Sufismus. Köln 1985. – [Großartiges Werk, dringend zu empfehlen. – Zur mannmännlichen Liebe siehe besonders S. 410-415; auch Index unter Liebe; Unbärtige (Jünglinge als Liebesobjekt) sowie Auhaduddîn, ‘Irâqî und Sarmad.]

Schimmel – siehe auch: Rûmî.

Schippers, Arie: “Die Knabenpoesie in der arabisch- und hebräisch-andalusischen Literatur.” [Boy poetry in the Arabic and Hebrew literatures of Andalusia.] In: Forum Homosexualität und Literatur, 31 (1998), S. 35-56. – [The author claims that “in Islam boy-love (pederasty) and homosexuality in general [!!] are called ‘Lot’s sin&rsquo: [liwat]”! (p. 35); the same nonsense appears again on page 54. – The opposite is true: the sin is precisely not Lot’s!]

Schmidtke, Sabine: “Die westliche Konstruktion Marokkos als Landschaft freier Homoerotik”. In: Die Welt des Islams, 40 (2000), S. 375-411.

Schmitt, Arno: Bio-Bibliography of Male-Male Sexuality and Eroticism in Muslim Societies. Berlin 1995. – [Schwer zu benutzen, stellenweise fehlerhaft, teilweise erfundene Todesdaten.]

Schmitt, Arno: “Liwât. im fiqh – Männliche Homosexualität?” In: Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies [http://www.uib.no/jais/content4.html], 4 (2001-2002), S. 59-110. – [Ausführliche Studie zu liwat (‘sodomia’) im islamischen Recht (fiqh), kostenlose pdf-Datei: http://www.uib.no/jais/v004/ schmitt1_prp.pdf (pre-published version).]

Schmitt, Arno / De Martino, Gianni: Kleine Schriften zu zwischenmännlicher Sexualität und Erotik in der muslimischen Gesellschaft. Berlin 1985.

Schmitt, Arno / Sofer, Jehoeda: Sexuality and Eroticism Among Males in Moslem Societies. New York 1992; Nachdruck Berlin 1995. – [Eine Sammlung von Beiträgen verschiedener Autoren.]

Schoeler, Gregor: Charakter und Authentie der muslimischen Überlieferung über das Leben Mohammeds. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1996. – [Wichtige Studie zur Frage nach der Authentizität der Überlieferungen über Muhammad, besonders zur sîra. – Siehe auch: Motzki; Schacht 1967.]

Second Book of Samuel – see: Bible.

ash-Shaukânî, Muhammad ibn ‘Alî: Nail al-Autâr, sharh Muntaqâ al-akhbâr. Bairût 1403/1983. vol. VII, p. 115-119: bâb man waqa‘a ‘alâ dhât mahram au ‘amila ‘amal qaum Lût au atâ bahîma. – [Commentary on an older collection of hadith.]

Siddîqî, ‘Abdul Hamîd: Sahîh Muslim, Being Traditions (...) Compiled (...) by Imâm Muslim. Rendered into English by ‘Abdul Hamîd Siddîqî, with Explanatory Notes (...). 4 volumes. Lahore 1980-82. – [Arabic text see: Muslim]

“Six Books” (of Sunnî hadîth) – see: Abû Dâwûd. – [On Shiite hadîth see: “Four Books”.]

Skinner, Jody: Warme Brüder – kesse Väter. Lexikon mit Ausdrücken für Lesben, Schwule und Homosexualität. Essen 1997. [A dictionary of German designations for lesbians, gays and homosexuality.]

Skjærvø, Prods Oktor: “Homosexuality [paragraph:] In Zorastrianism.” In: Encyclopaedia Iranica, volume 12, p. 440-441. – [On homosexuality in the Zoroastrian religion (ancient Iran).]

Soggin, J. Alberto: Das Buch Genesis. Kommentar. Darmstadt 1997. – [A scholarly commentary on the Book of Genesis (First Book of Moses; B:rêshîth); p. 280-287 is about the destruction of Sodom and the deliverance of Lot.]

as-Suyûtî, Jalâladdîn: Tanwîr al-hawâlik, sharh ‘alâ Muwatta’ Mâlik. [reprint] n.pl., n.d. – [Mâlik’s al-Muwatta’ with a commentary by as-Suyûtî (see also: Mâlik).]

as-Suyûtî, Jalâladdîn: al-Jâmi‘ as-saghîr [collection of hadith] – (extracts, translated into German) see: Hammer-Purgstall.

Swidler, Arlene (Hrsg.): Homosexuality and Word Religions. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania 1993. – [A collected volume containing the following essays: Robert M. Baum: Homosexuality and the Traditional Religions of the Americas and Africa; Arvind Sharma: Homosexuality and Hinduism (excellent!); José Ignacio Cabezón: Homosexuality and Buddhism; Lewis John Eron: Homosexuality and Judaism (excellent!); Denise and John Carmody: Homosexuality and Roman Catholicism; Marvin M. Ellison: Homosexuality and Protestantism; Khalid Duran: Homosexuality and Islam (unsatisfactory; see the remarks above under: Duran!); Sandra A. Wawrytko: Homosexuality and Chinese and Japanese Religions.]

at-Tabarî = at-Tabarî, Tafsîr: Abū Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn Jarīr aṭ-Ṭabarī: Tafsīr aṭ-Ṭabarī al-musammā Jāmi‘ al-bayān fī ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, ed. by Hānī al-Ḥājj, ‘Imād Zakī al-Bārūdī and Khairī Sa‘d. 30 parts in 16 volumes, Cairo n.d. (2004). – The Tafsîr can be read in Arabic, fully vocalized (but, unfortunately, without Tabarî’s own lengthy introduction), on Mauqi‘ al-Islam, section tafâsîr al-Qur’ân: http://quran.al-islam.com/Page.aspx?pageid=221&BookID=13&Page=1 – For an abridgment of this tafsîr see: Ibn Sumâdih.

Thyen, Johann-Dietrich: Bibel und Koran. Eine Synopse gemeinsamer Überlieferungen. 3. Auflage. Köln: Böhlau, 2000. – [A synopsis of parallel texts of the Biblical and Qur’ânic traditions; see the – partially misleading! – lemmata Lot, Homosexualität, Sodom, Sodomie in both indexes.]

at-Tibrîzî [at-Tabrîzî], Waliyyaddîn al-Khatîb: Mishkât al-masâbîh. Dihlî 1375 hijrî / 1955. – [Compendious hadîth collection, with marginal commentary, interlinear glosses and an appendix, al-Ikmâl, on all individuals mentioned in the collection as transmitters (rijâl), by at-Tibrîzî himself. – English translation see: Robson.]

at-Tirmidhî, Abû ‘Îsâ Muhammad ibn ‘Îsâ: al-Jâmi‘ as-sahîh wa-huwa Sunan at-Tirmidhî. Ed. by Hishâm Samîr al-Bukhârî, 5 volumes, Bairût, Dâr ihyâ’ at-turâth al-‘arabî, 1415/1995. – [This is mainly a reprint of the older 5-volume Cairo edition by Ahmad Muhammad Shâkir, Muhammad Fu’âd ‘Abdalbâqî and Ibrâhîm ‘Atwa ‘Iwad, with some passages replaced by new typography. It is mutilated at least at one place in volume 4 (originally 1381/1962): the hadith »If anyone of you loves his brother he should tell him this!« has been omitted; it should be in the “Chapter on what has been related on informing about love” (kitâb az-zuhd, bâb 54), vol. IV, p. 599, before no. 2397. See the Arabic text in the edition Sunan at-Tirmidhī, Liechtenstein: Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation, 2000, vol. II, p. 612, no. 2570; and online text at http://hadith.al-islam.com/Page.aspx?pageid=192&BookID=26&TOCID=1593, hadîth no. 2392: Kitābu z-zuhdi ʿan rasūli llāhi – Bābu mā jā’a fī iʿlāmi l-ḥubbi. This is the text of the hadîth: Ḥaddathanā Bundārun: ḥaddathanā Yaḥyā bnu Saʻīdini l-Qaṭṭānu: ḥaddathanā Thauru bnu Yazīda, ʻan Ḥabībi bni ʻUbaidin, ʻani l-Miqdāmi bni Maʻdī-Kariba, qāla: Qāla rasūlu llāhi (ṣ): »Idhā aḥabba aḥadukum akhāhu fa-l-yuʻlimhu iyyāhu.« – The chapter on the punishment for liwât is in volume IV, p. 57-58 = kitâb al-hudûd, bâb mâ jâ’a fî hadd al-lûtî, see the online text at http://hadith.al-islam.com/Page.aspx?pageid=192&BookID=26&TOCID=1001, hadîth no. 1456. – Sunan at-Tirmidhî is one of the most highly regarded hadîth collections, one of the “Six Books” (for which see above: Abû Dâwûd above).

Ullmann, Manfred – siehe: Wörterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache.

Wafer, Jim: “Muhammad and Male Homosexuality.” In: Murray/ Roscoe (1997): Islamic Homosexualities, p. 87-96. – [Very weak and in parts even baseless. The reader does not learn anything about the topic announced in the title.]

Wafer, Jim: “Vision and Passion. The Symbolism of Male Love in Islamic Mystical Literature.” In: Murray/ Roscoe (1997): Islamic Homosexualities, p. 107-131.

Waltter, Amin K.: Islam und Homosexualität. (Zusammenstellung von Materialien zum Thema und Anstöße für eine Re-Interpretation). [Hamburg] 1985. Unveröffentlichtes Manuskript.

Watt, W. Montgomery / Welch, Alford T.: Der Islam I. Mohammed und die Frühzeit – Islamisches Recht – Religiöses Leben. Stuttgart 1980. – [Empfehlenswerte wissenschaftliche Einführung zu Muhammad, Koran und Islam. Zu den Erzählungen im Koran S. 198-204.]

Wensinck, A. J. (et al.): al-Mu‘jam al-mufahras li-alfâdh al-hadîth an-nabawî [Concordance et indices de la tradition musulmane]. 8 volumes. Leiden, 1936-1988. (reprinted Istanbul 1986-1988). – [Arabic word concordance on the ‘Six Books’ and some other hadîth collections, according to Arabic roots in alphabetical order. – See: kh.n.th (mukhannath); kh.w.f (akhwafu); d.b.r (dubur); r.j.l (mutarajjila); r.j.m (rajama, rajm); s.f.l (asfal); sh.b.h (tashabbaha, mutashabbih); ‘.l.w (a‘lâ); ‘.w.r (‘aura); f.‘.l (fâ‘il, maf‘ûl); k.m.‘ (mukâma‘a); l.‘.n (la‘ana); l.w.t (lûtiyya); m.r.d (amrad); and proper names (in volume 8): Lût, lûtî, Hît, Bâdiya bint Ghailân.]

Wensinck, A. J. / Kramers, J. H. (eds.): Handwörterbuch des Islam. Leiden: Brill, 1941; reprinted 1976. – See especially the articles “Lût” (Lot) [see: Heller] and “Zinâ’” (fornication, adultery).

Wiedemann, Hans-Georg: Homosexuelle Liebe. Für eine Neuorientierung in der christlichen Ethik. Stuttgart: Kreuz Verlag, 1982.

Wikan, Unni: “Man Becomes Woman: Transsexualism in Oman as a Key to Gender Roles.” In: Man 12 (1977), S. 304-319. Nachgedruckt in: Wayne R. Dynes / Stephen Donaldson (Hrsg.): Asian Homosexuality. New York 1992, S. 338-353.

Wikan, Unni: Behind the Veil in Arabia: Women in Oman. Baltimore 1982. – [Hierin Kapitel 9: The Xanith: A Third Gender Role? über die effeminierten Männer Omans.]

Wörterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache [...] herausgegeben durch die Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft. Vol. II, part 3 لم through لوه – Ed. by Manfred Ullmann. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2000. – [p. 1762-1775 lists forms and references of Arabic words and derivations from the root لوط LWṬ: lūṭī etc.]

Wright, J.W. / Everett K. Rowson (Hrsg.): Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature. New York 1997. – [Eine Sammlung sehr gelehrter Aufsätze, u.a. über homoerotische Erzählungen und über islamische Paradiesesvorstellungen.]

Zaidan, Amir: Al-'Aqida. Einführung in die zu verinnerlichenden Inhalte des Islam. Marburg, 1997. – [A book on Islamic dogma. The author lists luwadt (!) as one of the sins – liwât would be correct]

az-Zamakhsharî, Mahmûd ibn ‘Umar: al-Kashshâf. (with super-commentaries and appendixes), 4 volumes. Reprinted from an earlier edition. Bairût, no date.

Zirker, Hans: Der Koran. Übersetzt und eingeleitet. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2003. [New German Qur’ân translation.]

Zirker, Hans: Der Koran. Zugänge und Lesarten. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1999. – [Recommendable German introduction to the Qur’ân by a Catholic theologian who also translated the Qur’ân, see above.]

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See also the complete German version of the text "Ein schwieriges Verhältnis: Homosexualität und Islam - Was sagt der Koran dazu?

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